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There were no payments based on historical entitlements in the 1980s but in 2003, such payments totalled ISK 1 276 million. ● ● Transfers to consumers, as measured by the % CSE, fell from 68% in 1986-88 to 51% in 2001-03. Support for general services provided to agriculture has remained unchanged at around 9% of total support. 8% in 2001-03. Producer Support Estimate (PSE) Level and composition over time... Payments based on input constraints, income, etc. Payments based on historical entitlements Payments based on area planted/animal numbers MPS, payments based on output and input use % of gross farm receipts 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 8 19 6 87 19 8 19 8 89 19 9 19 0 91 19 9 19 2 9 19 3 9 19 4 95 19 9 19 6 97 19 9 19 8 99 20 0 20 0 0 20 1 02 20 03 Support to producers (% PSE) has fallen from 75% in 1986-88 to 67% in 2001-03, however it is still more than twice the OECD average.

Producer Nominal Assistance Coefficient (NACp): the ratio between the value of gross farm receipts including support and gross farm receipts valued at border prices. Consumer Support Estimate (CSE): the annual monetary value of gross transfers to (from) consumers of agricultural commodities, measured at the farm-gate level, arising from policy measures that support agriculture, regardless of their nature, objectives or impacts on consumption of farm products. If negative, the CSE measures the burden on consumers by agricultural policies, from higher prices and consumer charges or subsidies that lower prices to consumers.

For Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovak Republic: The figure in the first column refers to 1991-93. Source: OECD, PSE/CSE database 2004. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES IN OECD COUNTRIES: AT A GLANCE – ISBN 92-64-01603-1 – © OECD 2004 31 I. EVALUATION OF SUPPORT POLICY DEVELOPMENTS form of GSSE support in Turkey and the United States, and now also in the European Union. The costs associated with public stockholding of agricultural products is now a quarter of its 1986-88 level at 4% of the overall GSSE in 2001-03, reflecting lower public stocks as a result of a combination of policy and market developments.

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