Download An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method by Morris R. Cohen, Ernest Nagel PDF

By Morris R. Cohen, Ernest Nagel

An advent to good judgment and medical technique is a school point primer on common sense. This booklet used to be greatly utilized by students in particular these learning economics as an creation to logical proposal in training for highbrow discourse. Ludwig von Mises was once identified to assert that every one scholars of economics may still learn this e-book as a primary step of their education as economists.

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Extra resources for An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method

Sample text

Thus The angles AFG, CGF, are greater than two right angles and The sum of the angles on the same side is equal to two right angles are themselves propositions which are components in 3 and 4. Let us apply the characterization compound to all propositions which contain other propositions as components. But the reader must be warned that the form of a sentence is not always indicative of the kind of proposition which it expresses. Let him recall the discussion at the end of the last section, where an analysis of cate­ gorical propositions was made.

THE T R A D IT IO N A L ANALYSIS 35 know the roots of a general quadratic in the standard form ax2 -fbx + c = 0, it is very simple to find the numerical answers to our problems. Moreover, if we adopt a standard form for writing equa­ tions, it is much easier to compare different equations and note their resemblances. Similar considerations apply in logic. For if we can once establish criteria of validity for inferences upon proposi­ tions stated in a standard form, all subsequent testing of infer­ ences becomes almost mechanical.

2. It should be noted, however, that while the proposition m ust not be confused with the symbols which state it, no proposition can be expressed or conveyed without symbols. The structure o f th e proposition must, therefore, be expressed and communicated by an appropriate structure of the symbols, so that not every com bination of symbols can convey a proposition. “John rat blue Jones,” “W alk27 28 THE ANALYSIS OF PROPOSITIONS ing sat eat very,” are not symbols expressing propositions, but simply nonsense, unless indeed we are employing a code of somf sort.

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