By Hartmut F.-W. Sadrozinski
Targeting source know-how in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) layout, functions of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays in clinical learn covers the primary of FPGAs and their performance. It explores a number of functions, starting from small one-chip laboratory platforms to large-scale purposes in "big science." The publication first describes quite a few FPGA assets, together with good judgment parts, RAM, multipliers, microprocessors, and content-addressable reminiscence. It then provides ideas and strategies for controlling assets, reminiscent of strategy sequencing, place constraints, and highbrow estate cores. the rest of the publication illustrates examples of functions in high-energy physics, house, and radiobiology. in the course of the textual content, the authors remind designers to be aware of assets on the making plans, layout, and implementation levels of an FPGA program, which will lessen using restricted silicon assets and thereby lessen approach price. offering functional information on an array of FPGA software examples, this publication offers an available assessment of using FPGAs in info acquisition, sign processing, and transmission. It exhibits how FPGAs are hired in laboratory purposes and the way they're versatile, reasonably cheap possible choices to advertisement info acquisition platforms. net source A helping web site at http://scipp.ucsc.edu/~hartmut/FPGA deals extra information on FPGA programming and utilization. the positioning includes layout parts of the case experiences from the ebook, together with VHDL code, specified schematics of chosen initiatives, pictures, and reveal pictures.
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Extra info for Applications of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays in Scientific Research
In the single-layer loop, QBA counts from 0 to FF, one clock cycle per value. The index QAA is held to 0 for two clock cycles and starts to count from 0 to FF. At the end of the loop, QBA rolls over from FF to 0 and is held to 0, and two clock cycles later, QBB rolls over from FF to 0, and the whole sequence stops. The sequence is implemented with three counters, two with 8 bits each and one with 2 bits. The sequence is conducted with an appropriate design of the control signals of the counters.
The information of the input voltage level within an LSB precision is carried into the sequence of ADC codes. Sliding averages (thick solid line) of the ADC outputs are calculated, and it can be seen that they trace the variation of the original signal with precision finer than the ADC LSB. © 2011 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC 46 Applications of field-programmable gate arrays in scientific research Note that if the precision of ADC LSB is sufficient for a certain application, explicit dithering is not needed.
2 Variation of LED brightness It is known that LED brightness varies with the current flowing through it. In the practical design of a printed circuit board, an LED is usually connected to an FPGA pin with a current-limiting resistor. The FPGA output pins normally only support logic levels, which yield constant brightness when the LED is on. However, when the flashing of an LED is sufficiently fast, its apparent brightness is lower and varies as the flashing duty cycle. 2. The duty cycle of the output is defined using a comparator with its B port connected to lower bits of a counter.