Download Autisme, le gène introuvable: De la science au business by Bertrand Jordan PDF

By Bertrand Jordan

« Ce livre présente les approches nouvelles de los angeles génétique médicale, dont différents features font souvent l’actualité. J’ai choisi d’évoquer les thèmes majeurs et très actuels de cette nouvelle “médecine génomique” à partir des recherches sur les déterminants génétiques de cette grave affection qu’est l’autisme. Ces travaux ont récemment donné lieu à des péripéties médiatiques et juridiques auxquelles j’ai été personnellement mêlé.

« Le récit fait découvrir les rapports entre le monde de l. a. recherche en génétique médicale et celui des entreprises de biotechnologie avec leurs impératifs particuliers. Il montre, à travers le marché des exams de l’autisme, les interférences entre le savoir, le enterprise et l’institution judiciaire. Cette histoire alterne avec des chapitres faisant le element sur les théories de l’autisme et les vives polémiques scientifiques qui y sont associées. J’y discute les difficultés de l. a. génétique psychiatrique, et, plus généralement, les avancées et limites des functions thérapeutiques de l’exploration du génome. »

B. J.

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Both studies are also noteworthy because interacting, nonallelic loci have been identified in the phenotypic responses. In the analysis of abnormal abdomen in D. mercatorum, the use of cloned probes made direct field studies possible, demonstrating the power of the combination of the candidate locus approach and molecular biology. It is hoped that these studies will serve as paradigms for ecological geneticists, both those working with Drosophila and with other organisms. As shown in these chapters, fitness differences, particularly those amplified in stressful environments, can be analyzed genetically and the molecular basis of the variation can now be understood.

These can then be tested by making long-term field studies on the natural population. The purpose of this paper is to describe our attempts to implement such a candidate locus approach to study natural selection in the cactophilic Drosophila, D. mercatorum. 2. THE aa SYNDROME IN D. MERCATORUM In 1975, a polymorphic syndrome known as abnormal abdomen (aa) was discovered in natural populations of Drosophila mercatorum living near Kamuela, Hawaii. The syndrome is associated with a slow down in the egg-to-adult developmental time of females, the retention of juvenile abdominal cuticle in the adult, increased early fecundity in adult females, and decreased longevity of adult females (Templeton and Rankin, 1978; Templeton, 1982a, 1983).

Hence, even if the genetic basis and fitness effects of a phenotypic syndrome were known, it is still not possible to make predictions about how allele or genotype frequencies will shift in nature in response to ecological conditions unless the relevant features of the population structure are also known. Molecular genetic techniques are increasing our ability to perform such ecological genetic studies. Many ecological genetic investigations deal with continuous phenotypic variation TEKPLETON, HOPE HOLLOCHER, AND SUSAN LANLER * Department of Biology, Washington University, st.

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