Download Ballot battles: the history of disputed elections in the by Edward Foley PDF

By Edward Foley

The 2000 presidential election, with its difficulties in Florida, used to be now not the 1st significant vote-counting controversy within the nation's history--nor the final. poll Battles strains the evolution of America's event with those disputes, from 1776 to now, explaining why they've got proved many times problematical and delivering an institutional solution"

summary: The 2000 presidential election, with its difficulties in Florida, was once no longer the 1st significant vote-counting controversy within the nation's history--nor the final. poll Battles lines the evolution of America's adventure with those disputes, from 1776 to now, explaining why they've got proved repeatedly complex and supplying an institutional resolution"

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But they did not know how best to achieve republican government when there emerged a controversy over the outcome of an important election. Pennsylvania, 1781 Philadelphia is the birthplace of both the Declaration of Independence and the US Constitution. It also can claim the dubious honor of being the location of the new nation’s first major ballot-counting dispute. ”3 Left unanswered was the question what principles would govern after independence. The year was 1781, and the election was for a seat on the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania.

49 When Livingston met with his council again on March 18, returns from all five of the western counties had arrived, but none yet from Essex. The western returns, indeed, strongly favored the Junto ticket, enough to elect all four of them, outweighing the strength of Clark and Dayton in the east. Knowing this, Essex was still keeping its polls open, in the hope of rustling up enough additional votes for Clark and Dayton to secure two of the four seats for them. The councilors supporting Clark and Dayton wanted the governor to wait for Essex to report before declaring the results.

The law, however, did not specify a date or time for the election to end, and this omission would prove to be the predicate for the dispute that developed. Governor William Livingston and his council met on March 3 to canvass the returns, as was their responsibility under the law. Livingston chose that date because the new Congress was to convene in New York the next day. By then only seven of New Jersey’s counties had closed their polls and submitted their returns. These seven were all the eastern counties except for Essex (home to Newark).

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